The primacy of New York among the States in population, wealth, manufacture, and commerce is based on its physical characters—geologic structure, physiographic relief, and geographic relations. New York State has the greatest range and perfection in its stratigraphic series and the greatest variety in physiographic features. In scenery other States may possess single features of surpassing grandeur and beauty, like the Colorado Grand Canyon, Yosemite Valley, Crater Lake, the mountains of the Cordillera, or the snow-capped volcanic cones of the northwest, but for abundance and variety of beautiful scenery of educational value New York may claim first place. In the variety and excellence of Pleistocene phenomena the State probably excels any other equal area of the earth’s surface. This is due to the varied and unusual physiography, combined with a favoring attitude of the area in relation to the continental glacier. The features of special excellence occur largely in . . .