Geologists and others are so much in the habit of considering striations and grooves in rock surfaces, U-shaped valleys, and hanging valleys to be conclusive proofs of glaciation that it will be of interest to cite some particularly striking instances of such features that have been in no way connected with ice action. The illustrations accompanying this note tell the whole story. They have been selected from the photographs taken by me upon three expeditions to the Lesser Antilles undertaken for the American Museum of Natural History in 1902, 1903, and 1908. The conditions were either consequent upon or revealed by the 1902-1903 eruptions of Mount Pelé of Martinique and the Soufrière of Saint Vincent. Perhaps similar features may be known elsewhere, without an explanation having been apparent.
The eruptions of Mount Pelé in 1902 and 1903 were characterized by the emission of unnumbered, probably hundreds, of exploding steam-clouds . . .