Location of the area.—The region described in this paper is in southern central New York, along and near the divide between the Saint Lawrence and Susquehanna drainage systems. Most of the facts were obtained in studies leading to the preparation of the Watkins Glen Folio (see plate 37) of the United States Geological Survey, which includes the Ithaca, Watkins, Elmira, and Waverly topographic sheets; but some of the facts were discovered in the studies on the quadrangle east of the Watkins Glen.
General topography.*—The area under discussion is a part of the dissected Allegheny plateau, with uplands of mature form, deeply trenched by valleys of less mature character, whose sides are often too steep for farming and in some cases even precipices. In ruggedness of topography there is a difference from south to north, the northern portion being both evener and smoother than the southern. The uplands reach . . .