The engineering work recently completed and that now undertaken in and about the city of New York make it easily the focus for such enterprises on the planet—enterprises the cost of which must be estimated in the hundreds of millions. To mention but a few, there are the subway and the tunnels of the Rapid Transit railway, the East River bridges numbers 2, 3, and 4, the proposed tunnels of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company from Weehawken to Long Island City beneath the two rivers and Manhattan island, the completion of the old Hudson River tunnel from Jersey City to New York, and the dredging of the Buttermilk and Ambrose channels and of the Man-o’-War and Diamond reefs by the United States government. These are some of the larger of the recent enterprises. Of earlier ones, the government work in making the channel of Hell Gate by removing Flood and . . .