The initial accumulation of atmospheric oxygen is marked by the unprecedented positive δ13Ccarb excursions of the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event (LJE) and records an interval of abnormal O2 production through elevated rates of organic carbon burial. Emerging evidence suggests that the post-LJE atmosphere-ocean system might have suffered a significant deoxygenation. These dynamic perturbations in the oceanic redox state and biogeochemical cycles would have led to fundamental changes in carbonate precipitation dynamics. Here, we report the discovery of centimeter-sized crystal fans in the post-LJE Huaiyincun Formation, Hutuo Supergroup in the North China Craton. The hexagonal cross-sections and square terminations suggest that these fan-like dolomitic structures were originally aragonite crystal fans (ACF). Variations of stromatolite morphology and frequent occurrences of storm-related deposits in the Huaiyincun Formation point to repeated cycles of sea level changes. The bedding-parallel distribution of the ACF and the homogeneous δ13C values of the ACF-bearing dolostones are consistent with a primary depositional origin for the ACF. An updated compilation of published records of ACF throughout geological history highlights a clear absence of ACF from the initiation of the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event until the end of the LJE, and a global reappearance of ACF in the post-LJE late Paleoproterozoic. We propose that the reappearance of ACF is in agreement with the expansion of the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir. At the same time, consumption of dissolved oxygen during the oxidation of organic matter might have been stimulated by ferruginous deep seawater, facilitating the formation of Huiayincun ACF.

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