The Chinese Tianshan experienced largescale transcurrent tectonics, synkinematic emplacement of ultramafic to felsic intrusions, and the formation of various mineral deposits during late Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis. The relationships among the spatial variation of deformation, the distribution of Permian orogenic Au and magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits, and the kinematic evolution of crustal-scale shear zones, however, remain ambiguous. To address these ambiguities, the spatial variation in the degree of deformation in the Kanggur-Huangshan shear zone in the Chinese Tianshan was characterized using detailed structural measurements and zircon U-Pb and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age data. The new structural data indicate that a prominent spatial variation exists in the style of deformation throughout the Kanggur-Huangshan shear zone; intense ductile deformation structures are dominant in the east, while brittle structures become progressively more dominant toward to the west. Zircon U-Pb and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age data for syn- and postkinematic intrusions along the Kanggur-Huangshan shear zone indicate that dextral strike-slip shearing occurred between 279 Ma and 249 Ma. The spatial variation in the degree of deformation and exhumation along the Kanggur-Huangshan shear zone was potentially caused by regional differential uplift induced by the collision of the Tianshan and Beishan regions; this was likely responsible for the predominant occurrence of magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits in the eastern portion of the Kanggur-Huangshan shear zone and orogenic Au deposits in the western portion. The identified spatio-temporal relationship between deformation and distribution of orogenic Au and magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits is crucial to the future success of mineral exploration in the Central Asian orogenic belt.