Updating magmatic profile in crucial constituent terranes across the Central Asian Orogenic Belt presents a key to chronicling the timeline of prolonged accretionary processes and termination of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the northern China–southern Mongolia tract. Here we performed a systematic geochronological and geochemical study on a spectrum of Paleozoic intrusions from the Erenhot region in central Inner Mongolia, North China, within the hinterland of the tract, with four distinct magmatic episodes unraveled. Combining these episodes with the previously documented events from contiguous regions defines two major tectono-magmatic cycles. The early Paleozoic cycle (500–450 Ma) evolved from initial fluid-fluxed tholeiitic and calc-alkaline granitoids to melt-fertilized mafic-intermediate magmatism. It appears to experience the initiation and maturation of a Western Pacific-type intra-oceanic arc system that culminated in ridge subduction. The late Paleozoic cycle expanded in magmatic expression from sporadic Late Devonian (373–365 Ma) calc-alkaline intermediate-felsic pulses through Early-Middle Carboniferous (356–320 Ma) medium to high-K calc-alkaline flare-up to a Late Carboniferous–Early Permian (310–277 Ma) province of diverse lithologies. These magmatic episodes seem to encompass a complete active continental arc–back-arc system that spanned from resuming oceanic plate subduction through slab rollback and backarc rifting to ridge-trench collision and backarc basin closure. Featuring a Rodinia-aged terrane affinity and a representative Paleozoic magmatic profile, the Erenhot region provides an optimal site for correlating the evolution of mosaic terranes in southern Mongolia and northern China, and for evaluating the coupled evolution of shifting tectonic regimes and plural crustal generation mechanisms within a retreating accretionary orogen.