The Tibetan Plateau is composed of several microblocks, the tectonic affinity and paleogeographic correlations of which remain enigmatic. We investigated the Amdo and Jiayuqiao microblocks in central Tibet Plateau with a view to understand their tectonic setting and paleogeographic position within the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia. We present zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope, and whole-rock geochemical data on Neoproterozoic granitic gneisses from these microblocks. Zircon grains from the Jiayuqiao granitic gneiss yielded an age of 857 ± 9 Ma with variable εHf(t) values (–8.9 to 4.0). The Amdo granitic gneisses yielded ages of 893 ± 5 Ma, 807 ± 5 Ma, and 767 ± 11 Ma, with εHf(t) values in the range of –4.9 to 3.5. Geochemically, the granitoids belong to high-K calc-alkaline series, with the protolith derived from partial melting of ancient crustal components. The ascending parental magma of the Amdo granitoids experienced significant mantle contamination as compared to the less contaminated magmas that generated the Jiayuqiao intrusions. In contrast to the Lhasa, Himalaya, South China, and Tarim blocks, we suggest that the Amdo and Jiayuqiao microblocks probably formed a unified block during the Neoproterozoic and were located adjacent to the southwestern part of South China craton. The Neoproterozoic magmatism was probably associated with the subduction of the peripheral ocean under the South China craton and the delamination of lithospheric mantle beneath the Jiangnan orogen.