This study focused on uppermost Cretaceous sedimentary rocks deposited in the Himalayan region and around the core of peninsular India just before the eruption of the Deccan Traps. Detailed stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of Late Cretaceous successions in the Himalayan Range together with literature data from the Kirthar fold-and-thrust belt and central to southeastern India document a marked shallowing-upward depositional trend that took place in the Campanian–Maastrichtian before the Deccan magmatic outburst around the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Topographic uplift of the Indian peninsula began in Campanian time and is held responsible for thick sediment accumulation associated with shorter periods of nondeposition in peripheral areas (Himalayan Range, Kirthar fold belt, and Krishna-Godavari Basin) than in the central part of the Deccan Province. Surface uplift preceding Deccan volcanism took place at warm-humid equatorial latitudes, which may have led to an acceleration of silicate weathering, lowered atmospheric pCO2, and climate cooling starting in the Campanian–Maastrichtian. The radial centrifugal fluvial drainage in India that is still observed today was established at that time.