Abstract

Cenozoic magmatism occurs throughout West Sulawesi, Indonesia, yet its detailed evolution remains enigmatic due mainly to the scarcity of precise dating. Here, we report new whole-rock geochemical and zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data of plutonic/volcanic rocks and river sediments from West Sulawesi to constrain the petrogenesis and magmatic tempo. The magmatic rocks are intermediate to felsic (SiO2 = 58.1–68.0 wt%), high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic (K2O = 2.2–6.0 wt%), metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, and I-type in composition. Trace element concentrations and ratios (e.g., Nb/U = 1.7–4.3 and Ti/Zr < 28), along with negative zircon εHf(t) values (–17.0 to –0.4) and old crustal model ages (TDMC = 2.1–1.1 Ga), indicate a dominant magma source region from the underlying continental crystalline basement. U-Pb dating on zircons from ten magmatic rocks yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 7.2–6.1 Ma, best representing the crystallization ages of host magmas, further consistent with the prominent age peaks (7.3–6.3 Ma) defined by detrital zircons from four sedimentary samples. Our new data, combined with available results, allow the identification of a noticeable climax of magmatism (flare-up) at ca. 7–6 Ma, forming a continuous magmatic belt throughout West Sulawesi. Given the absence of contemporaneous subduction and the coincidence of incipient opening of the South Banda Basin during ca. 7.15–6.5 Ma, the Late Miocene magmatic flare-up in West Sulawesi and coeval regional extension in eastern Indonesia are attributed to a resumed episode of Banda slab rollback.

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