The timing of the late Paleozoic glaciation and its terminal deglaciation in the Paraná Basin, Brazil, is unconstrained and prohibits correlation of the Paraná Basin ice record with other high-latitude Gondwanan and low-latitude contemporaneous records. Here, we reexamine the existing U-Pb framework for the Carboniferous–Permian Paraná succession through high-precision, single-crystal chemical abrasion–thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) analysis of individual zircons from tonsteins and subaerial volcanic ash deposits, which overlie sedimentary deposits with glacial indicators. The new ages document two distinct volcanic intervals and define a substantially new and revised chronostratigraphy for postglacial coal-bearing intervals in the southern Paraná Basin. The new CA-TIMS ages further indicate that glaciation in south-central Gondwana, long considered to be Early Permian, is entirely Carboniferous in age and that terminal deglaciation in this key west-central Gondwanan basin occurred near the Permian-Carboniferous boundary. Single-crystal U-Pb CA-TIMS ages from the ice-proximal high-latitude basins of southern Africa and Australia are needed to test the synchronicity of late Paleozoic glaciation and deglaciation events throughout Gondwana, with implications for empirical- and model-based paleoclimate reconstructions.