Several tectonic models have been proposed for the Neoproterozoic amalgamation of the South China block during the assembly of Rodinia. However, the timing of the end of arc magmatism between the two subblocks in the South China block (i.e., the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks) remains controversial because it is unclear whether the 860–820 Ma magmatic rocks and coeval sedimentary basins in this area are related to subduction or plume activity. Here, we present new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for the sediments directly overlying early Neoproterozoic arc volcanic rocks in this region. These data reveal a rhythmic change in source coincident with a progressive increase in the amount of juvenile and old crustal detritus within these sediments. This result, combined with the presence of a fining-upward grain-size trend and horizontal bedding within these sediments, provides evidence of bidirectional sources that are consistent with a backarc setting. The juvenile crustal material within these sediments was sourced from adjacent arc terranes to the east, whereas the old crustal detritus was derived from the Yangtze block to the west. In addition, sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe zircon U-Pb dating of mafic rocks within equivalent sedimentary sequences yielded ages of ca. 860–840 Ma, and these mafic rocks have arc- or mid-ocean-ridge basalt–like geochemical features that indicate the initiation of backarc spreading associated with Neoproterozoic NW-directed subduction. The data from the sediments and mafic rocks suggest the presence of a backarc basin system at ca. 860–820 Ma within the southeastern margin of the Yangtze block. This in turn indicates that Rodinia assembly was not completed until ca. 820 Ma, with the South China block possibly acting as a connection between a Neoproterozoic Andean-type active continental margin and Grenvillian belts on the paleo–western margin of the Rodinia supercontinent.