Multimethod geochronology (U-Pb zircon; 40Ar/39Ar hornblende, biotite, feldspar; apatite fission track) on granitoids, gneisses, and Cenozoic intramontane basin clastics of the Gissar-Alai ranges, South Tian Shan collisional belt, west of the Talas-Fergana fault, elucidates a history of Neoproterozoic magmatism, late Paleozoic magmatism and metamorphism, and Mesozoic–Cenozoic thermal reactivation. Zircon-core and grain-interior U-Pb ages of ca. 2.7–2.4, 2.2–1.7, 1.1–0.85, and 0.85–0.74 Ga tie the early evolution of the Gissar-Alai ranges to that of the Tarim craton. At least part of the Gissar range crystalline basement—the Garm massif—shows U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of ca. 661–552 Ma (median ca. 609 Ma), again suggesting a Tarim craton connection. Tarim collided with the Middle Tian Shan block at ca. 310–305 Ma, completing the protracted formation of the South Tian Shan collisional belt. The massive Gissar range granitoids intruded later (ca. 305–270 Ma), contemporaneous with peak Barrovian-type metamorphism in the Garm massif rocks. Major- and trace-element compositions suggest that the Gissar granitoid melts have continental arc affinity. Zircon εHf and whole-rock εNd values of –2.1 to –6.9 and –2.7 to –7.2, respectively. and Hf-isotope crustal model and Nd-isotope depleted mantle model ages of ca. 1.0–1.2 and ca. 1.1–2.2 Ga, respectively, suggest significant input of Precambrian crust in the Gissar granitoid and Garm orthogneiss melts, consistent with the U-Pb ages of inherited and detrital zircons. The distinct ca. 661–552 Ma Garm gneiss crystallization ages and the ca. 1.0–2.2 Ga model ages (and the lack of 2.4–3.4 Ga model ages) tie the Garm gneisses and the reworked crust of the Gissar range to the northern rim—the Kuqa and Kolar sections—of the Tarim craton, suggesting a united Karakum-Tarim craton. Although about contemporaneous with widespread postcollisional magmatism in the entire Tian Shan, the large volume and short duration of the Gissar range magmatism, including crustal thickening and prograde metamorphism during Tarim craton–Middle Tian Shan block collision, and formation and closure of an oceanic back-arc basin (the Gissar basin), indicate its origin in a distinct setting. Combined, this likely resulted in midcrustal melting and upper-crustal batholith emplacement. Mafic dikes and pipes intruded at ca. 256–238 Ma (median ca. 241 Ma); the source region of the parental melts was within the asthenospheric mantle. The simplest interpretation for these basanites is that they were part of the Tarim flood basalt province; this would extend this province westward from the Tarim craton into the southwestern Tian Shan and imply that the relatively short-lived flood basalt event (ca. 290–270 Ma) was followed by much less voluminous but longer-lasting hotspot magmatism. The 40Ar/39Ar and detrital apatite fission-track dates outline post–Gissar-Alai range granitoid emplacement cooling, Cimmerian collision events at the southern margin of Asia, Late Cretaceous crustal extension and local magmatism, and early Cenozoic shortening and burial in the far field of the India-Asia collision.