This study describes the structural setting, petrogenesis, and geochronology of a suite of acidic magmatic rocks that are intruded in the metamorphic core of the Tertiary ophiolitic suture zone of the Sabzevar Range, NE central Iran. These intrusive bodies show tabular geometries with solid-state fabrics documenting syntectonic emplacement during crustal shortening. In the total alkalis-silica (TAS) diagram, their compositions define a medium-K calc-alkaline suite, spanning from basaltic andesite to the dacite and rhyolite fields. They show characteristic low MgO (0.15–0.60 wt%) and Ni (<20 ppm), high Sr contents, a negligible Eu anomaly, and extremely fractionated rare earth element (REEs), with high La/Yb and Sr/Y (up to 900) ratios, but very low Yb and Y contents. They also show zircon Hf isotope compositions compatible with a mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB)–type oceanic crust. Inverse and forward thermobarometry constrains conditions of magma crystallization in the upper-pressure field of the amphibolite facies (ca. 1.2–1.5 GPa and 750 °C). Integrated U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar white mica and amphibole geochronology constrains the Sabzevar magmatism to the late Paleocene (at ca. 58 Ma). Genesis of the Sabzevar magmatic suite is interpreted in terms of prograde, wet amphibolite melting during oceanic subduction, within a pressure-temperature range between a plagioclase-out and a hornblende-out boundary. Magma differentiation and high-pressure amphibole fractionation of pristine slab melts are proposed as the dominant factors that imparted the adakite signature in the Sabzevar structural zone. Implications in terms of the regional tectonic scenario are discussed and framed within the advancing and retreating evolution of the Neotethyan subduction during the Mesozoic–Tertiary time span.