For the first time, four distinct magmatic fabrics are documented in a composite plutonic body, the Tuolumne batholith, central Sierra Nevada, California, USA. One type of fabric was formed by strain caused by highly localized magma flow (type 1), whereas the other three chamber-wide fabrics recorded strain increments during boundary processes along batholith margins (type 2) superimposed by increments of heterogeneous regional tectonic strain (types 3 and 4). Our present work indicates that, in contrast to studies that consider magmatic fabrics to be simple structures formed by a single process, magmatic lineations and foliations in plutons may reflect accumulated finite strain and form as composite structures recording multiple strain increments in relatively static, actively deforming and rheologically complex crystal mushes at lower melt percentages. We demonstrate that multiple magmatic fabrics in a single batholith may record remarkably different processes and thus preserve a temporal record of strain in the batholith from strain during internal chamber processes to postem-placement regional tectonic strain. However, it may be commonly very problematic to infer the exact nature of flow or even fabric-forming process from the preserved rock record. Our study also exemplifies how examination of magmatic fabric patterns in plutons, complemented with geochronology, may provide crucial constraints on the interplay among successive magma emplacement, fabric preservation, temporal evolution of strain fields in a crystallizing magma chamber, and the development of crystal-mush zones.

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