Introductory Note.—In the following paper, Canada means more than the narrow strip along the eastern part of the northern border of the United States, with which the name was once familiarly associated in the minds of the citizens of the latter country. Leaving out Alaska, Canada now means the northern half of this continent.

The extent of the area in the northern hemisphere which has undergone glaciation during the drift period has now been pretty well ascertained, and the greater part of it proves to lie within the Dominion of Canada. Considering this fact and also the diversity in topography and climate presented by a country which stretches from the temperate zone to the north pole, it must be admitted that we Canadians have a splendid field for the study of the ancient glacial phenomena.

In 1863 the writer prepared the chapter on surface geology in the “Geology of . . .

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