The Indian passive margin has preserved several pulses of magmatism during and after the disassembly of Gondwana since the late Paleozoic, providing valuable insights into the long-term magmatic evolution of various passive margins, including the Indian passive margin. In the Yumai Complex, eastern Tethyan Himalaya, a pulse of Late Triassic alkaline volcanism (ca. 227–216 Ma) is evident. The Late Triassic volcanic rocks are mildly alkaline to tholeiitic basalts with minor ultrabasic rocks, similar in geochemistry to within-plate flood basalts. The TiO2 contents (1.46–3.38 wt%, mainly >2 wt%), (La/Yb)N values (4.05–7.50), εNd(t) values (+4.86 to +6.98), and results from partial-melt modeling suggest that the basalts likely originated from garnet peridotite. Elemental and Sr-Nd systematics of magmatic rocks emplaced during the Triassic indicate oceanic island basalt (OIB) components in the magma source, interpreted as enriched mantle components rather than crustal contamination products. Spatiotemporal and geochemical patterns of magmatism reveal that the bulk compositions of the basalts changed from enriched OIB-like to depleted mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB)–like compositions. This phenomenon likely resulted from the evolving nature of the rifting basin, changing from a nascent continental setting to a mature ocean basin. The Triassic magmatism in the Tethyan Himalaya can be attributed to remnant lithospheric instability arising from the prolonged rifting of eastern Gondwana, leading to the formation of a magmatically passive margin.
Formation and evolution of a magmatic system in the Indian passive margin: Insights from the Triassic Yumai Complex from the eastern Tethyan Himalaya
Chao Wang, Lin Ding, Houqi Wang, Fulong Cai, Xiaodong Wang, Liyun Zhang, Yahui Yue; Formation and evolution of a magmatic system in the Indian passive margin: Insights from the Triassic Yumai Complex from the eastern Tethyan Himalaya. Geosphere 2023; doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/GES02655.1
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