The sedimentary fill of peripheral foreland basins has the potential to preserve a record of the processes of ocean closure and continental collision, as well as the long-term (i.e., 107–108 yr) sediment-routing evolution associated with these processes; however, the detrital record of these deep-time tectonic processes and the sedimentary response have rarely been documented during the final stages of supercontinent assembly. The stratigraphy within the southern margin of the Delaware Basin and Marathon fold and thrust belt preserves a record of the Carboniferous– Permian Pangean continental assembly, culminating in the formation of the Delaware and Midland foreland basins of North America. Here, we use 1721 new detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb ages from 13 stratigraphic samples within the Marathon fold and thrust belt and Glass Mountains of West Texas in order to evaluate the provenance and sediment-routing evolution of the southern, orogen-proximal region of this foreland basin system. Among these new DZ data, 85 core-rim age relationships record multi-stage crystallization related to magmatic or metamorphic events in sediment source areas, further constraining source terranes and sediment routing. Within samples, a lack of Neoproterozoic–Cambrian zircon grains in the pre-orogenic Mississippian Tesnus Formation and subsequent appearance of this zircon age group in the syn-orogenic Pennsylvanian Haymond Formation point toward initial basin inversion and the uplift and exhumation of volcanic units related to Rodinian rifting. Moreover, an upsection decrease in Grenvillian (ca. 1300–920 Ma) and an increase in Paleozoic zircons denote a progressive provenance shift from that of dominantly orogenic highland sources to that of sediment sources deeper in the Gondwanan hinterland during tectonic stabilization. Detrital zircon core-rim age relationships of ca. 1770 Ma cores with ca. 600–300 Ma rims indicate Amazonian cores with peri-Gondwanan or Pan-African rims, Grenvillian cores with ca. 580 Ma rims are correlative with Pan-African volcanism or the ca. 780–560 Ma volcanics along the rifted Laurentian margin, and Paleozoic core-rim age relationships are likely indicative of volcanic arc activity within peri-Gondwana, Coahuila, or Oaxaquia. Our results suggest dominant sediment delivery to the Marathon region from the nearby southern orogenic highland; less sediment was delivered from the axial portion of the Ouachita or Appalachian regions suggesting that this area of the basin was not affected by a transcontinental drainage. The provenance evolution of sediment provides insights into how continental collision directs the dispersal and deposition of sediment in the Permian Basin and analogous foreland basins.

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