Determination of fracture orientation can be an important aspect of structural analysis in reservoir characterization. The availability of ground-based laser scanner systems opens up new possibilities for the determination of fracture surface orientation in rock outcrops. Scanners are available in low-sample-density, low-accuracy, and fast, high-sample-density, high-accuracy models. These automatic laser scanner systems produce enormous volumes or “clouds” of point data at an instrument-dependent accuracy and resolution, which can be at the millimeter level.
This huge volume of data calls for an automated and objective method of analysis. We have developed a surface classification algorithm based on a multipass partitioning of the point cloud. The method makes use of both spatial proximity and the orientation of an initial coarse-grained model of the point cloud. Unsupervised classification of surface sets is demonstrated herein using the new algorithm.
Both previously mentioned types of scanners have been used to map the Jackfork sandstone outcrop at Big Rock Quarry in Little Rock, Arkansas. We apply the surface classification algorithm to these data to extract fracture surface orientations from the point cloud. The effectiveness of these new technologies when applied to fracture analysis is clearly demonstrated in this example. It is also shown that the low-density, low-resolution type of scanner is adequate to define general geomorphology but is inadequate for fracture definition. The surface classification algorithm can be used to reliably extract fracture and bedding strike and dip angles from the three-dimensional point locations acquired using centimeter-accurate, high-density laser scanner systems.