The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) crisis caused major short-term perturbations in ocean chemistry, as recorded by the precipitation of anachronistic carbonates. Here, we document for the first time a global dolomitization event during the Permian-Triassic transition based on Mg/(Mg + Ca) data from 22 sections with a global distribution representing shallow- to deep-marine environments. Ten of these sections show high Mg/(Mg + Ca) ratios bracketing the PTB, recording a short-term spike in dolomite formation. The dolomite consists mainly of micron-scale anhedral to subhedral crystals that are associated with abundant fossilized bacterial bodies and extracellular polymeric substances, suggesting that dolomite precipitation was induced by microbial metabolic activity. Sections showing a dolomite spike at the PTB are widely distributed geographically, but mostly encountered in mid-shelf to upper-slope settings. Because the dolomitization event coincided with a rapid expansion of oceanic anoxia and high rates of sulfate reduction, we hypothesize that it was triggered by enhanced microbial sulfate reduction within the oceanic chemocline.