In the Changning region of the Sichuan Basin, China, which has experienced decades-long injection of freshwater for commercial salt mining, a Ms 6.0 earthquake occurred in June 2019, along with four Ms >5 aftershocks. Using data from local and regional seismic stations, we determine accurate locations for this earthquake sequence, velocity structures, and excess pore fluid pressures of the source region. Our results show that the Ms 6.0 earthquake is extremely shallow (~1.6 km below mean sea level) and is associated with low Vs and high Vp/Vs values and excess fluid pressures, indicating a fluid-induced earthquake. The mainshock was likely the shallowest M >6.0 induced earthquake, and it was triggered by the combined effect of pore pressure increase from the diffusion of injected fluids, differential formation subsidence from salt caverns, and highly fractured slip-prone rocks enriched in quartz and silica content. Following Coulomb stress transfer from the mainshock, the sequence ruptured in a cascading manner involving preexisting oblique faults of varying dips.

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