A big mantle wedge (BMW) is defined as the broad region of upper mantle above a stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ). It is a common and significant structure within Earth's interior at modern convergent plate margins as revealed by seismic data yet rarely identified in fossil convergent systems. We propose the existence of a BMW beneath the Western Mongolia Collage during the early to middle Paleozoic based on a comprehensive chronology of geological events that characterized the accretionary orogen in this region. The trench-arc system initially developed above a NE-dipping subduction zone, with subduction-related arc magmatism clustered at ca. 530–490 Ma and accumulations of flysch-like sequences from the Cambrian to early Silurian constituting the accretionary wedge of the Altai Zone. The westward migration of the arc was likely driven by slab rollback and trench retreat, leading to gradual formation of a BMW as the slab stagnated at the MTZ. The BMW influenced the tectonic evolution of the entire Western Mongolia Collage, inducing Ordovician–Silurian intraplate magmatism in regions inboard of the migrating magmatic arc and the potential opening of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. Westward movement of the trench-arc continued until the Devonian, resulting in back-arc basin formation in the Chinese Altai and intraplate magmatism in the Hovd and Lake Zones of the Western Mongolia Collage, forming a trench–arc–back-arc and intraplate tectonic system. Mantle flow within the BMW is inferred to have impacted magmatism, basin migration, and the stress and thermal state of the overriding plate.

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