The timing and processes of ductile deformation and metasomatism can be documented using apatite petrochronology. We integrated microstructural, U-Pb, and geochemical analyses of apatite grains from an exhumed mylonitic shear zone in the St. Barthélémy Massif, Pyrenees, France, to understand how deformation and metasomatism are recorded by U-Pb dates and geochemical patterns. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses documents crystal plastic deformation characterized by low-angle boundaries (<5°) associated with dislocation creep and evidence of multiple slip systems. Laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb maps indicate that dates in deformed grains reflect, and are governed by, low-angle dislocation boundaries. Apatite rare earth element (REE) and U-Pb behavior is decoupled in high-grade gneiss samples, suggesting REEs record higher-temperature processes than U-Pb isotopic systems. Apatite from (ultra)mylonitic portions of the shear zone showed evidence of metasomatism, and the youngest dates constrain the age of metasomatism. Collectively, these results demonstrate that crystal plastic microstructures and fluid interactions can markedly change apatite isotopic signatures, making single-grain apatite petrochronology a powerful tool for dating and characterizing the latest major deformation and/or fluid events, which are often not captured by higher-temperature chronometers.