The Tonian–Ediacaran Hecla Hoek succession of Svalbard, Norway, represents one of the most complete and well-preserved Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions worldwide. With diverse fossil assemblages, an extensive carbonate δ13C record, and sedimentary evidence for two distinct Cryogenian glaciations, this succession will continue to yield insights into the Neoproterozoic Earth system; however, at present there are no direct radiometric age constraints for these strata. We present two new Re-Os ages and initial Os isotope data that constrain the timing of Neoproterozoic glaciation in Svalbard, providing further support for two globally synchronous Cryogenian glaciations and insight into pre- and post-snowball global weathering conditions. An age from the Russøya Member (Elbobreen Formation) facilitates correlation of the negative carbon isotope excursion recorded therein with the pre-glacial “Islay” excursion of the Callison Lake Formation of northwestern Canada and the Didikama and Matheos Formations of Ethiopia. We propose that this globally synchronous ca. 735 Ma carbon isotope excursion be referred to as the Russøya excursion with northeastern Svalbard as the type locality. This new age provides an opportunity to construct a time-calibrated geological framework in Svalbard to assess connections between biogeochemical cycling, evolutionary innovations within the eukaryotes, and the most extreme climatic changes in Earth history.