Global Neoproterozoic glaciations are related to extreme environmental changes and the reprise of iron formation in the rock record. However, the lack of narrow age constraints on Cryogenian successions bearing iron-formation deposits prevents correlation and understanding of these deposits on a global scale. Our new multiproxy data reveal a long Cryogenian record for the Jacadigo Group (Urucum District, Brazil) spanning the Sturtian and Marinoan ice ages. Deposition of the basal sequence of the Urucum Formation was influenced by Sturtian continental glaciation and was followed by a transgressive interglacial record of >600 m of carbonates that terminates in a glacioeustatic unconformity. Overlying this, there are up to 500 m of shale and sandstone interpreted as coeval to global Marinoan glacial advance. Glacial outwash delta deposits at the top of the formation correlate with diamictite-filled paleovalleys and are covered by massive Fe and Mn deposits of the Santa Cruz Formation and local carbonate. This second transgression is related to Marinoan deglaciation. Detrital zircon provenance supports glaciostatic control on Cryogenian sedimentary yield at the margins of the Amazon craton. These findings reveal the sedimentary response to two marked events of glacioeustatic incision and transgression, culminating in massive banded iron deposition during the Marinoan cryochron.