Narrow, highly-comminuted shear localization features in faults, known as principal slip zones (PSZs), are commonly associated with large-offset seismogenic faults. In this study, laboratory friction experiments were performed using shale and slate gouges where deformation was encouraged to localize at the gouge–wall-rock boundary. The slate gouges develop a black, narrow PSZ composed of densely packed submicron particles that appear sintered while the spectator gouge remains largely undeformed. These PSZs form at subseismic slip velocities of ∼10−5 m/s and with a calculated temperature rise of ∼3 °C. Instances of velocity-weakening friction, which is necessary for unstable fault slip, are only observed for slate samples with a PSZ; shale gouges, however, do not develop a PSZ and exhibit only velocity-strengthening frictional behavior. The development of a PSZ may therefore be a prerequisite for future earthquake slip to occur, rather than unequivocal evidence of past earthquake slip.

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