Sub-arctic Cretaceous (Berriasian–late Valanginian, ca. 145–134 Ma) marine temperatures obtained from fossil mollusks (belemnites) are determined using carbonate clumped isotope thermometry, an approach based on the “clumping” of 13C and 18O in the carbonate mineral lattice into bonds with each other. From our analyses we infer sub-arctic Early Cretaceous marine temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 20 °C. These possibly seasonally biased, warm sub-arctic temperatures are warmer than present mean summer water temperatures at 60–65°N and are therefore consistent with a warmer “greenhouse” world featuring a shallow (equable) latitudinal temperature gradient. Our combined temperature and δ18Obelemnite data imply seawater δ18O values that have a remarkably modern character in that they are similar to modern high-latitude seawater but more positive than modeled Cretaceous seawater. We identify a cooler late Valanginian interval (ca. 134 Ma) with temperatures consistent with polar regions a few degrees above freezing and also coincident with increased δ18O seawater values. Thus we find evidence of intervals when polar ice was unlikely, and also when polar ice was plausible. Both scenarios support the view of generally warm but dynamic polar climates during greenhouse intervals that were punctuated by periods of ice growth.

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