Studies of paleo–sea level and past climate have focused upon proxy methods in ice and deep-sea cores and more direct information provided by past shorelines, in some cases preserved as raised or submerged reef deposits in tropical areas. Paleo-shorelines need to be constrained by accurate tectonic history because these environments and their marine deposits can be confused with past tsunami deposits and vice versa. A maximum 21-m-high extensive emerged reef on Oahu, Hawaii, U-series dated to 334 ± 17 ka, together with a mean U-series age of 335 ± 22 ka (n = 5) for slightly higher, energetic shoreline deposits nearby, suggest a marine isotope stage 9 (MIS 9) highstand, and extend the earlier work indicating a linear uplift for Oahu of 0.060 ± 0.001 mm/yr over the past 500 k.y. Five of the past six major emerged interglacial highstand reefs on Oahu have been identified, and these data provide little evidence for past maximum sea levels significantly greater than 2 m above the sea level datum at that time. There is currently no evidence for a MIS 11 highstand on Oahu.

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