Suborbital climate variability during the last glacial period is suggested to have involved a 1500-year pacing cycle, but the expression and spatial distribution of the ~1500-year oscillation during interglacials remains unclear. We generated a multidecade resolution record of alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) in the northwestern Pacific off central Japan during the Holocene. The SST record showed centennial and millennial variability with an amplitude of ~1 °C throughout the entire Holocene. Spectral analysis for SST variation revealed a statistically significant peak with 1470-year periodicity. The SST variation partly correlated with the variations of ice-rafted hematite-stained grain content in North Atlantic sediments. These findings indicate that the mean latitude of the Kuroshio Extension has varied on a 1500-year cycle, and suggest that a climatic link exists between the North Pacific gyre system and the high-latitude North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. The regular pacing at 1500-year intervals seen throughout both the Holocene and the last glacial period suggests that the oscillation was a response to external forcing.