The importance of Pozzuoli's archaeological ruins in linking sea-level change and Earth deformation with volcanic activity has been recognized since the nineteenth century. The pillars of the Roman market were used as a paleotide gauge by pioneer geologists such as Lyell. For the first time, we have radiocarbon dated biological indicators on these remains, showing three 7 m relative sea-level highstands during the fifth century A.D., the early Middle Ages, and before the 1538 eruption of Monte Nuovo. These repeated uplift and subsidence cycles, not always followed by volcanic activity, have important implications for the evaluation of volcanic hazard.

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