In order to better understand mechanisms of active faults, we studied relationships between fault behavior and rock units along the Hayward fault using a three-dimensional geologic map. The three-dimensional map—constructed from hypocenters, potential field data, and surface map data—provided a geologic map of each fault surface, showing rock units on either side of the fault truncated by the fault. The two fault-surface maps were superimposed to create a rock-rock juxtaposition map. The three maps were compared with seismicity, including aseismic patches, surface creep, and fault dip along the fault, by using visualization software to explore three-dimensional relationships. Fault behavior appears to be correlated to the fault-surface maps, but not to the rock-rock juxtaposition map, suggesting that properties of individual wall-rock units, including rock strength, play an important role in fault behavior. Although preliminary, these results suggest that any attempt to understand the detailed distribution of earthquakes or creep along a fault should include consideration of the rock types that abut the fault surface, including the incorporation of observations of physical properties of the rock bodies that intersect the fault at depth.