Most volcanoes grow on slopes, and some tend to fail catastrophically on the downslope side. Many volcanoes also deform by volcano spreading, which may lead to failure. We look at the effect of dipping substrata on the potential for spreading and collapse with analogue models. The dip is found to strongly control the spreading style, rate, and direction. A distinct change from purely radial spreading occurs even with small (<1°) substrata tilt. Structures on the cone and surrounding area are modified according to the underlying dip direction. Spreading becomes concentrated on downslope sectors, where movement is predominantly in the dip direction. The degree of structural realignment is a function of the slope angle. Our models are applied to previously known and new examples of volcano spreading. The effect of dipping substrata in confining spreading to sectors increases the potential for deep-seated sector collapses. This finding provides a mechanism for failure on the downslope side. The incorporation of substrata can create very large volume collapses.

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