Prevolcanic kilometer-scale lithospheric doming in the Emeishan large igneous province, southwest China, allows us to evaluate the spatial and temporal consequences of uplift on the paleogeography, geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the region. Systematic spatial variations are observed across the domal structure in the distribution and thickness of clastic and carbonate sediments, the extent of erosion, thickness, and chemistry of volcanic rocks, and the crust-mantle structure. These features, which are best explained by a mantle plume, may be used to track older plume sites in the geologic record.

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