The geomorphic character of major river drainages in the Himalayan foothills of central Nepal suggests the existence of a discrete, west-northwest–trending break in rock uplift rates that does not correspond to previously mapped faults. The 40Ar/39Ar thermochronologic data from detrital muscovites with provenance from both sides of the discontinuity indicate that this geomorphic break also corresponds to a major discontinuity in cooling ages: samples to the south are Proterozoic to Paleozoic, whereas those to the north are Miocene and younger. Combined, these observations virtually require recent (Pliocene–Holocene) motion on a thrust-sense shear zone in the central Nepal Himalaya, ∼20–30 km south of the Main Central thrust. Field observations are consistent with motion on a broad shear zone subparallel to the fabric of the Lesser Himalayan lithotectonic sequence. The results suggest that motion on thrusts in the toe of the Himalayan wedge may be synchronous with deeper exhumation on more hinterland structures in central Nepal. We speculate that this continued exhumation in the hinterland may be related to intense, sustained erosion driven by focused orographic precipitation at the foot of the High Himalaya.