While Katz and Starinsky agree that Canadian Shield brines represent extremely concentrated, modified seawater they disagree with our calculated subsurface residence time and our preferred seawater concentration mechanism. We proposed, largely on the basis of the 129I data for the Yellowknife brine, that infiltration took place at a minimum of 80 Ma, but possibly much earlier in the Devonian, when seawater covered a large part of the shield (Cookenboo et al., 1998; McCracken et al., 2000). However, Katz and Starinsky argue that shield brines were, in fact, formed by the freezing of seawater along the northern...

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