Let me begin by clearing up a misrepresentation of my position. Despite what Kilty says, I never claimed that falsificationism characterizes the methodology of experimental science. In fact, I explicitly argued that falsificationism is logically flawed and historically inaccurate as an account of any science, historical or experimental. It is Kilty (not I) who believes that the paradigm for experimental science is falsificationism. I will return to this issue later.

I agree with Kilty that “… whether an event is historical or the outcome of a controlled experiment, its effects appear afterward.” But this is irrelevant to my point, which...

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