In his Comment Ford does not take issue with the key aspect of my paper, that geothermal heating results in lower viscosity at depth, and that this low viscosity promotes conduit formation in carbonate aquifers where flow paths exceed 3 km. Instead, he argues that the depth of conduit flow below the water table was resolved by Ford (1971), and that the depth at which caves form below the water table is dependent on the “frequency and attitude of penetrable fissures.” If the open fissures are widely spaced then “cave systems may be compelled to follow deep loops below...

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