Thousands of cubic kilometers of high-K calc-alkalic magmas intruded the Borborema Province (northeastern Brazil) during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny. They make up large batholiths in which mantle-derived mafic to intermediate rocks coexist with a larger amount of granitoids. The relatively low silica contents (61–70 wt% SiO2) and moderate to high compatible element concentrations (0.3–3.5 wt% MgO, 1.5–3.8 wt% CaO, as much as 150 ppm of Cr) of the granitoids indicate that they contain an appreciable mantle component. The similar trace element geochemical (high contents of incompatible trace elements) and isotopic (strongly negative ϵNd values) signatures of mafic and felsic rocks combined with geochemical modeling suggest that (1) the mafic and felsic rocks are genetically linked, (2) the granitic magmas were produced by 20%–30% partial melting from a source having geochemical characteristics similar to the mafic rocks, and (3) mingling and mixing of felsic magmas with subsequent batches of mafic magmas yielded the silica-poor granitoids. Isotopic data preclude involvement of the asthenosphere in the genesis of the mafic melts and instead indicate their derivation from an old, enriched lithospheric mantle. Therefore, addition of mantle material to the crust occurred through internal lithospheric differentiation, in contrast with conventional crustal-growth models.