Peter W. Lipman, Thomas W. Sisson, Tadahide Ui, Jiro Naka; In search of ancestral Kilauea volcano. Geology ; 28 (12): 1079–1082. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<1079:ISOAKV>2.0.CO;2
Download citation file:
Submersible observations and samples show that the lower south flank of Hawaii, offshore from Kilauea volcano and the active Hilina slump system, consists entirely of compositionally diverse volcaniclastic rocks; pillow lavas are confined to shallow slopes. Submarine-erupted basalt clasts have strongly variable alkalic and transitional basalt compositions (to 41% SiO2, 10.8% alkalies), contrasting with present-day Kilauea tholeiites. The volcaniclastic rocks provide a unique record of ancestral alkalic growth of an archetypal hotspot volcano, including transition to its tholeiitic shield stage, and associated slope-failure events.