The regional petrological and geochemical variations observed in the Recent magmatism along the Italian peninsula are interpreted to testify to the coexistence of distinct sectors of upper mantle. These are suggested to result from at least three compositionally and temporally distinct metasomatic events that affected petrologically different premetasomatic mantle sources. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that metasomatism in the northern sector occurred during the Alpine subduction by introduction of a composition similar to the deeply subducted Dora Maira metagranites into a residual lithospheric mantle of upper crustal material. Metasomatic events beneath the Roman and Neapolitan areas are younger. These are related to the addition of melts and fluids into a fertile asthenospheric mantle during the latest stage of the west-directed Apennine subduction of the Adria plate and during the current northwest subduction of the Ionian sea floor.