Abstract

The nature of the physical processes responsible for the formation of continental and oceanic metamorphic core complexes is widely debated. The controversy focuses primarily on whether the low-angle normal faults observed in these environments formed and slipped at low angles or were rotated from an original high-angle orientation after large offsets. We describe a self-consistent numerical model for the extension of a brittle layer that can spontaneously produce normal-fault structures. In our formulation, a fault or faults form because strength is locally reduced with increasing strain. If the reduction in fault strength is <∼10% of the total strength of the layer, then faults lock after an offset smaller than the layer thickness and new faults form. Larger strength reduction leads to single faults that continue to slip no matter how large the fault offset. If the strength reduction occurs by the loss of cohesion, then we see the unlimited offset faults for layers <11–22 km thick for reasonable values of cohesion. The key result of this study is that structures very similar to those observed in both oceanic and continental core complexes are produced by rotation of the inactive part of the model fault after very large offset.

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