Three grains of microdiamond were recovered from high-grade gneiss exposed in the Western Gneiss region, Norway. Identification and characterization of the diamond grains by Raman and infrared spectroscopy indicate the presence of substitutional impurities of H and N. Primary fluid inclusions in garnet and quartz in the diamond-bearing rock demonstrate the evolution of metamorphic volatile fluids from reduced N2-CO2 compositions during the peak phase of metamorphism, to N2-CH4 ± H2O–bearing compositions during retrograde metamorphism. Compatible geologic, petrologic, and fluid composition data imply a metamorphic origin for the microdiamonds; if so, the metamorphic and fluid conditions recorded by the microdiamonds and gneissic host may be applicable to microdiamond investigations in other high-pressure, regionally metamorphosed orogens.

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