Earthquake-induced paleoliquefaction features in Holocene sediments in south-central Indiana are evidence for strong shaking in the recent prehistoric past in an area where only infrequent, low-magnitude earthquakes have occurred during the 200 yr of the historic record. Distribution of liquefaction features and geotechnical analyses of liquefied sediments are the basis for estimating that an earthquake with a magnitude of ∼6.9 was centered near Vallonia, Indiana. Radiometric, archaeologic, and stratigraphic relations bracket the event to between ∼3.7 ka and 4.2 ka B.P. Evidence for a local source for strong shaking requires reassessment of earthquakes hazards in the southern Indiana–northern Kentucky–southwestern Ohio area.

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