Vapor-absent melting experiments on a biotite- and amphibole-bearing, Archean tonalitic gneiss (AGC150) at 10 kbar and 875 to 1050 °C show that amphibole breaks down from 900 to 950 °C, producing garnet, orthopyroxene, and granitic melt. Biotite-dehydration melting produces <10 wt% melt up to 950 °C via incongruent melting reactions that produce garnet, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite. Widespread biotite-dehydration melting occurs between 950 and 975 °C and produces orthopyroxene, magnetite, titanomagnetite, and ∼20 wt% fluorine-rich melt (up to 0.31 wt% F). Minor F-rich (2.7 wt%) biotite is present even at 1000 °C. Our experiments show that, under vapor-absent conditions, intrusion of hot, mantle-derived magmas into the lower crust is necessary to initiate widespread biotite-dehydration melting in rocks with compositions like AGC150. We propose that the high thermal stability of biotite in AGC150 suggests that this rock is residual after a previous episode of partial dehydroxylation that left behind somewhat F-enriched biotite. We show that dehydration melting of such F-enriched biotite produces F-rich granitic liquids, with compositions within the range of A-type granite, and leaves behind a granulitic residue consisting of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, titanomagnetite, and magnetite.

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