Gordon W. Tribble; Underwater observations of active lava flows from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Geology ; 19 (6): 633–636. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0633:UOOALF>2.3.CO;2
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Underwater observation of active submarine lava flows from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in March-June 1989 revealed both pillow lava and highly channelized lava streams flowing down a steep and unconsolidated lava delta. The channelized streams were 0.7-1.5 m across and moved at rates of 1-3 m/s. The estimated flux of a stream was 0.7 m3/s. Jets of hydrothermal water and gas bubbles were associated with the volcanic activity. The rapidly moving channelized lava streams represent a previously undescribed aspect of submarine volcanism.