The Tertiary-Quaternary porphyry copper-gold deposits of the southwest Pacific rim (particularly in Luzon, mainland Papua New Guinea, Bougainville, Guadalcanal, and Fiji) mostly formed after a reversal of arc polarity. Where this reversal has not occurred (e.g., New Zealand and Japan), porphyry copper-gold deposits are absent or scarce; hence, older porphyry copper-gold deposits may be useful clues to tectonic history. Enrichment of magmas in gold may have resulted from two-stage melting. The tectonic setting of porphyry copper-gold deposits differs from that inferred for volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits.

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