Alfred T. Anderson, Sally Newman, Stanley N. Williams, Timothy H. Druitt, Christine Skirius, Edward Stolper; H2O, CO2, CI, and gas in Plinian and ash-flow Bishop rhyolite. Geology ; 17 (3): 221–225. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1989)017<0221:HOCCAG>2.3.CO;2
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Infrared spectroscopic (H2O, CO2 and electron microprobe (CI) analyses of glass inclusions in Plinian and ash-flow quartz phenocrysts from the Bishop Tuff reveal the preeruption concentrations of volatiles in separate parts of the body of magma. There is an inverse relation between H2O, CO2 that can be explained (1) by closed-system, gas-saturated crystallization of parent magma to yield Plinian magma + (lost) crystals or (2) by the rise of CO2-rich bubbles through water-rich magma. Our estimated pressures of gas-saturation range from about 1.6 kbar (Plinian) to 2.3 kbar (ash flow) and accord with geologic evidence for 3 km of magma withdrawal and caldera subsidence.