Four major earthquakes of the 1811-1812 New Madrid series caused widespread ground disturbance, mostly in the form of sand blows, in the alluvial valley of the Mississippi River. Although a recurrence interval of 600-700 yr has been estimated for major shocks, recent excavations at an archeological site in northeastern Arkansas revealed no evidence of ground disturbance for at least 1.3 ka prior to 1811. Sand blows attributed to the New Madrid series show that such features can have multiple episodes of sand extrusion through a single dike and vent.

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