Abstract

Under the auspices of the Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution, approximately 320 km of deep seismic reflection data were collected in Lake Huron along a profile that extends east from the Manitoulin terrane across the Grenville front to the interior of the Grenville orogen. The Manitoulin terrane is characterized by a series of gently east-dipping reflections at about 20 km depth that separate a highly reflective lower crustal layer from a markedly less reflective upper layer. Imaged by strong reflections at the western end of a spectacular band of moderately east-dipping reflections, the Grenville front clearly truncates Manitoulin terrane structures to the west. These data are interpreted in terms of a speculative two-stage model involving (1) creation of a major decollement during northward collision of an allochthonous terrane with the southern Superior cratonic margin (1.83-1.89 Ga; Penokean orogeny) and (2) northwest-directed stacking of microterranes at the southeastern margin of the craton, followed by crust-penetrating ductile imbrication under high-pressure-high-temperature conditions leading to the ramping of deeply buried rocks to the near surface (1.0-1.3 Ga; Grenvillian orogeny).

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