A. A. Ekdale, T. R. Mason; Characteristic trace-fossil associations in oxygen-poor sedimentary environments. Geology ; 16 (8): 720–723. doi: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1988)016<0720:CTFAIO>2.3.CO;2
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The sedimentologic record of oxygen-poor depositional environments typically includes trace fossils produced by deposit-feeding organisms. We propose an oxygen-controlled trace-fossil model in which increasing oxygen concentration of interstitial water in sediment parallels a transition from fodinichnia-dominated through pascichnia-dominated to domichnia-dominated trace-fossil associations. In certain places, such as parts of the late Paleozoic Oquirrh Basin in Utah, this model provides a reasonable alternative to the more traditional, depth-controlled model of trace-fossil distribution.